Although Einstein was a mathematician he is better known for his work in the field of theoretical physics, and through his work he helped change the realm of physics for years to come.
He was always a little different from other children: At an early age, his family moved to Munich where Einstein attended a Catholic school and showed an early aptitude for mathematics, particularly geometry and calculus although he disliked the school's policy of strict memorization, which he thought unhelpful.
Outside of school, Albert einstein the 20th century science explored his own path of learning in mathematics and philosophy with a medical student and friend of the family, Max Talmud.
At the age of just 16, he had already made his first conceptual breakthrough while looking at a mirror and wondering what he would see if he were traveling at the speed of light a thought experiment sometimes referred to as "Einstein's Mirror".
He gained Swiss citizenship in and never revoked it. Unable to find a teaching post after graduation, Einstein eventually obtained a job evaluating patent applications for electromagnetic devices at the Swiss patent office in Bern.
He married a Serb woman named Mileva Maric inand the couple were to bear two sons, Hans Albert and Eduardand possibly another child, Lieserl, before their marriage, who either died in childhood or was put up for adoptionbefore divorcing in Much of this work was highly controversial or just ignored within the scientific community of the time, and he continued his work at the patent office until He benefitted from the mathematical assistance of his old friend Marcel Grossman, who was one of the only people in Zurich with whom Einstein could discuss his new ideas.
He moved on to Berlin in at the personal request of Max Planckwhere he became a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, a director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics and a professor at the Humboldt University of Berlin, as well as maintaining an ongoing relationship with Leiden University in the Netherlands through his contacts there with the physicists Hendrik Lorentz and Willem de Sitter.
He became actively involved in anti-war demonstrations during World War I, publicly advocating civil disobedience and the refusal of conscription.
Einstein gave a series of lectures in about his new theory, which was to become known as the General Theory of Relativityincluding a new equation to replace Newton's law of gravity, now known as Einstein's field equation. The complete theory was finally published inalthough physicists and mathematicians like Karl Schwarzschild and Ludwig Flamm were starting to publish solutions to his field equations even before its publication.
General relativity is based on the notion that gravity and acceleration are indistinguishable the principle of equivalence and describes gravity as a property of the geometry or, more specifically, the warpage of space-timeleading to the prediction of phenomena like the bending of lightblack holes and wormholes.
Despite the attempts by many scientists to disprove the General Theory of Relativitythe British astronomer Arthur Eddington claimed in to have confirmed Einstein's prediction of the gravitational deflection of starlight by the Sun, leading, almost overnight, to global renown and international media attention for Einstein.
His fellow scientists began to speak of general relativity in terms such as "probably the greatest scientific discovery ever made" and "the greatest feat of human thinking about nature". Einstein spent the next few years traveling extensively, giving lectures around the world.
He tried to develop thought experiments whereby Heisenberg 's uncertainty principle might be violated but, each time, Bohr found loopholes in Einstein's reasoning. During the First World War, Einstein had campaigned vigorously against the war, supporting various anti-War and pacifist organizations.
He remained a staunch pacifist even after the end of the War, and was highly critical of nationalism and committed to the idea of a single world government free of a military. Throughout the s, he continued to participate in numerous peace campaigns and wrote articles on international peace and disarmament.
He was also was drawn to the Zionist cause during the s, despite its nationalistic character. His physics research after general relativity consisted primarily of a long series of largely unsuccessful attempts to generalize his theory of gravitation still further in order to unify and simplify the fundamental laws of physics, particularly gravitation and electromagnetism.
He was desparate to come up with a unified field theory, a "theory of everything" that would refute the claims of quantum theorywhich he never came to terms with.
He went so far as to publish a paper inwhich purported to be just such a theory, and which attracted huge media attention, but he was forced to admit to errors and back-tracked rapidly, losing credibility and accepting public humiliation in the process.
He became increasingly isolated in his research, pursuing his own lonely track while largely ignoring other developments in physics and particularly in quantum theory. But his his distrust of quantum theory and his inconclusive search for the elusive "theory of everything" was to consume him until the day he died.
In the early s, Einstein took to spending his winters at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California, and was also a guest lecturer at the newly founded Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. When, inAdolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany and promptly passed the "Law of the Restoration of the Civil Service" removing Jews and politically suspect government employees including university professors from their jobs, the Einsteins prudently moved to the U.
The Nazis froze his German bank account and seized his home, and Einstein remained in the United States for the rest of his life, becoming a citizen in although he also retained his Swiss citizenship.
Over time, he became so well known in his adopted America that he would be stopped on the street by people wanting him to explain "that theory". His wife Elsa died inand his personal secretary, Helen Dukas, cared for him thereafter, as his health became increasingly precarious.
With the Nazi rise to power in Germany, Einstein decided to rethink his rigid pacifist stance. Many scientists in the U. InEinstein signed a letter to U. Although Einstein himself did not play a direct role in the development of the atomic bomb, he later expressed regret about signing the letter to Roosevelt, and urged that all nuclear weapons be transferred into the control of the United Nations.
In the later Cold War years, Einstein lobbied, along with Albert Schweitzer and Bertrand Russell, to stop all nuclear testing and future bombs.
In politics, he was a socialist Zionist who supported the creation of a Jewish national homeland in the British mandate of Palestine, and he raised money for Zionist organizations and was in part responsible for the formation of the International Rescue Committee.
In a article entitled "Why Socialism? He was a member of several civil rights groups, and was sympathetic to the notion of vegetarianism, adopting a strict vegetarian diet later in life. The family practised no formal religion in their home and Einstein did not want his children to receive any form of religious instruction.
Einstein began to suffer from ill health inand eventually died of an aortic aneurysm on 18 April in Princeton Hospital in New Jersey at the age of 76, having continued to work, both on physics and on his civil rights and political concerns, until the day he died, his search for a "theory of everything" still unrealized.
Albert Einstein Books See the additional sources and recommended reading list below, or check the physics books page for a full list.Albert Einstein’s reach extended far beyond science. In December , Time magazine proclaimed him the “Person of the Century.”.
Albert Einstein’s impact on the world ranged far beyond the sciences to include the many ways he changed our culture. MSNBC’s Alex Johnson reports. symbol of pacifism in the 20th century. Albert Einstein: A Revolutionary Influence of the 20th Century, Who’s Work Impacted the Final Outcome of WWII and Forever Changed Modern Warfare (Fall ) Albert Einstein was one of the twentieth centuries most influential people, both as a scientist and a public figure.
Albert Einstein, a German-born American theoretical physicist, was known to be one of the greatest scientists of the 20th century.
He was born in Ulm, Germany on March 14, , grew up and completed his early education in Munich. Watch video · ashio-midori.com offers a glimpse into the life of Albert Einstein, the most influential physicist of the 20th century who developed the theory of relativity.
a children’s science text that. Albert Einstein, who arguably contributed more than any other scientist since Sir Isaac Newton to our modern vision of physical reality, is clearly one of the most gifted intellects the world has ever known. In a relatively brief period of time, Einstein forever changed the way people thought about 5/5.