Religio Religion from O. One possible interpretation traced to Ciceroconnects lego read, i. The definition of religio by Cicero is cultum deorum, "the proper performance of rites in veneration of the gods. Augustinefollowing the interpretation given by Lactantius in Divinae institutiones, IV,
Either the universe had a beginning or it did not.
If it did, either that beginning was caused or it was not caused. If it was caused, either the cause was personal or it was impersonal. Based on these dilemmas, the argument can be put in the following logical form: Whatever begins to exist has a cause of its existence.
The universe began to exist. Therefore, the universe has some kind of cause of its existence.
The cause of the universe is either an impersonal cause or a personal one. The cause of the universe is not impersonal. Therefore, the cause of the universe is a personal one, which we call God. This version of the cosmological argument was bolstered by work in astrophysics and cosmology in the late twentieth century.
On one interpretation of the standard Big Bang cosmological model, the time-space universe sprang into existence ex nihilo approximately Such a beginning is best explained, argue kalam defenders, by a non-temporal, non-spatial, personal, transcendent cause—namely God.
The claim that the universe began to exist is also argued philosophically in at least two ways. First, it is argued that an actual infinite set of events cannot exist, for actual infinities lead to metaphysical absurdities.
Since an infinite temporal regress of events is an actual infinite set of events, such a regress is metaphysically impossible. So the past cannot be infinite; the universe must have had a temporal beginning. A second approach begins by arguing that an infinite series of events cannot be formed by successive addition one member being added to another.
The reason why is that, when adding finite numbers one after the other, the set of numbers will always be finite. The addition of yet another finite number, ad infinitum, will never lead to an actual infinite. Since the past is a series of temporal events formed by successive addition, the past could not be actually infinite in duration.
Nor will the future be so. The universe must have had a beginning.Philosophers have tended to be more abstract in their analysis, and much of the work examining the viability of the belief concept stems from philosophical analysis.
The concept of belief presumes a subject (the believer) and an . An Analysis of Religious and Spiritual Beliefs and Behaviors in College Students Allison C.
Culey In a survey of religion and public life done by the Pew Forum in , it was found that the ways religious and spiritual beliefs and practices, the historical participation in religious practices in.
It seems as though what we imagine to be the best of all possibilities is actually the worst of all destinies. The concept of heaven was probably invented as a way to assuage people’s fear of death and to offer a future promise of wealth to keep the poor from robbing the rich in this life.
Philosophy of Religion. Philosophy of religion is the philosophical study of the meaning and nature of religion.
It includes the analyses of religious concepts, beliefs, terms, arguments, and practices of religious adherents. Transactional Analysis is one of the most accessible theories of modern psychology.
Transactional Analysis was founded by Eric Berne, and the famous 'parent adult child' theory is . Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
Another way of defining belief sees it as a mental representation of an attitude positively oriented towards the likelihood of something being true. In the context of Ancient Greek thought, two related concepts.