History of urban planning There is evidence of urban planning and designed communities dating back to the MesopotamianIndus ValleyMinoanand Egyptian civilizations in the third millennium BCE. Archeologists studying the ruins of cities in these areas find paved streets that were laid out at right angles in a grid pattern. Beginning in the 8th century BCE, Greek city states were primarily centered on orthogonal or grid-like plans.
Urban Planning is a large-scale concept concerned with planning and development at all levels architectural, infrastructural, ecological, economic, and even political.
What is Urban Planning simply in less than 2 minutes? On the other hand, English Lexicon describes Urban Planning as a branch of architecture dealing with the design and organization of urban space and activities besides determining and drawing up plans for the future physical arrangement.
Here in IEREKwe believe that Urban Planning must be accompanied by sustainability concept which enables us to carry out the urban development process in the right way to keep up the sustainable environment for future generations.
Urban Planning Problems The basic concern of city-town planning is the internal form, structure, function, and appearance of urban areas. Physical aspects such as buildings, roads, land use, etc.
Apart from this problem, some factors also complicate the task of planning as follows: Increase in Public Expenditure: They can actually play a part in the increases of public costs because these changes in infrastructures and building must actually be paid for by someone- and it is usually the taxpayers.
Populations will begin to use their cars more often, which means that there is more traffic on the roads.
When you think about going out to develop these lands you will have to worry about the wildlife that lives in these lands.
You will be displacing them, and it can really cause a ripple in the environment. If in a continuous residential area where two houses walls are shared, the problem arises in such areas when one house owner is willing to renovate the house and another is not in case of deterioration.
They may develop conflict, which may turn out to be a problem in the future. Both such events are detrimental for the urban development.
Different sections of the city have unequal value as building sites as the underlying soil and rock formations affect the soundness of the foundations, characteristics of subsoil drainage, etc. All these make differences in the cost of underground construction.
At the same time, the rough terrain has different advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of buildings. Topography affects the routes of transportation.
Breaks in transportation like from waterway to land-way or from the roadway to railway prove advantageous for certain manufacturing and commercial activities.
Some parts of the city provide better amenities than others. The amenities can be in the form of a better view and access to the market. Housing choice is a response to an extremely complex set of economic, social, and psychological impulses as follows: Housing affordability can be measured by the changing relationships between house prices and rents and between house prices and incomes.
There has been an increase among policymakers in affordable housing as the price of housing has increased dramatically creating a crisis in affordable housing. Lack of affordable housing places a particular burden on local economies.
As well, individual consumers are faced with mortgage arrears and excessive debt and therefore cut back on consumption. A combination of high housing costs and high debt levels contributes to a reduction in savings. Lack of affordable housing can make low-cost labor more scarce, and increase demands on transportation systems as workers travel longer distances between jobs and affordable housing.
Urban Planning Solutions As we mentioned before Urban Planning must be accompanied by sustainability concept. Here where we should stand and understand that city is more than the sum of its parts.
It is a whole living thing that is constantly changing, evolving and morphing into an ever more ECO-Friendly and welcoming entity which can be achieved through innovative sustainable solutions such as following: Affordable Housing has become a commonly used term for summarizing the nature of the housing difficulty in many nations.
He identifies six elements of measuring housing expenditure to an income ratio to measure housing affordability.For 4 th Urban Research Symposium Urban Land Use and Land Markets The World Bank, Washington, DC, May Guiding spatial changes: Singapore urban planning 4 Development is currently the minister in .
Urban planning is also referred to as urban and regional planning, regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning, urban development or some combination in various areas worldwide. Urban planning guides orderly . Analysis of the role of citizen participation in urban environmental improvement in urban services and Baghmalek Secondary research objectives Recognition of citizens' awareness of their civic rights and duties towards the Municipality Baghmalek.
The notion of wicked problems was introduced over four decades ago by Rittel and Webber () to describe the complexity of economic and social issues in planning.
In planning research and urban studies, there has been a strong commitment to the normative ideal of communicative planning and citizen dialogue in urban planning. Today, however, critical research into the effects of such normative commitment is increasing. like clashes between residents, riot, the blockade of garbage landfills facility (Hadi, ). Waste management problems become very serious in urban areas due to the complex problems faced group of citizens who care about the environment (Surjandari, et al., ). In addition,aspects of community. In the overall analysis, one can see how political institutions and problems with incentives and information contributed to the failure. The Chilean economy has been expanding rapidly, and its capital city of Santiago has emerged as a first world city.
If the problem was already “wicked” then, adding an extra layer of energy-related issues certainly amplifies the relevance of the concept. Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles.
Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. Introduction Citizenship and Urban Issues in Jordan Myriam Ababsa “Although one of the essential projects of nation- building has been to dismantle the historic primacy of urban citizenship and to replace it with the national, cities remain the strategic arena for the development of citizenship”.