James Oglethorpe founds Georgia Core historical themes Motivations for colonization: English colonies emerged along the eastern seaboard for a variety of reasons.
It also neglects the colonial-era power dynamic of which African societies and institutions were essential components. After the Berlin Conference of —85, at which the most powerful European countries agreed upon rules for laying claim to particular African territories, the British, French, Germans, Italians, Spanish, Belgians, and Portuguese set about formally implementing strategies for the long-term occupation and control of Africa.
The conquest had begun decades earlier—and in the case of Angola and South Africa, centuries earlier.
But after the Berlin Conference it became more systematic and overt. In fact, by Western Europeans had mastered the art of divide, conquer, and rule, honing their skills over four hundred years of imperialism and exploitation in the Americas, Asia, and the Pacific.
In addition, the centuries of extremely violent, protracted warfare among themselves, combined with the technological advances of the Industrial Revolution, produced unmatched military might. When, rather late in the period of European colonial expansion, Europeans turned to Africa to satisfy their greed for resources, prestige, and empire, they quickly worked their way into African societies to gain allies and proxies, and to co-opt the conquered kings and chiefs, all to further their exploits.
Consequently, the African responses to this process, particularly the ways in which they resisted it, were complex. The Complexities of Resistance Adding to the complexity was the fact that rapid European imperial expansion in Africa did not necessarily change relationships among African communities.
Those in conflict with one another tended to remain in conflict, despite the impending threat from the French, British, Germans, and other powers. There was, moreover, no broadly accepted African identity to unite around during this period. The strongest identities were communal and, to a lesser extent, religious, which begins to explain the presence of African participants in European conquests of other African societies.
During the second half of the nineteenth century, for example, in what is now Ghana, conflict between the Fante and Asante, which predated British designs on the kingdom of Asante, motivated the Fante to join the British against the Asante, who at the time seemed to be their greatest threat.
As they resisted European invasions, they confronted both European and African soldiers. That is, they confronted a political hierarchy imposed by Western Europeans that included African proxies.
The power was European, but the face of it on the local level was often African. Despite these seeming contradictions, it remains insufficient to speak of African responses to the imposition of colonial rule as a choice between either collaboration or resistance. It was possible to resist colonial rule through collaboration with the colonizers in one instance and in the next to resist European authority.
It was also possible to limit European political control through some form of collaboration with European generals or colonial administrators. This is all to suggest that Africans evaluated their circumstances, assessed possible actions and consequences, to make rational responses.
Some form of resistance, moreover, remained constant during the period of formal European political dominance. Ethiopia stands alone, however, as the one African society to successfully defend itself against an invading European army and remain free of direct European political domination.Overview: The Problem of Representation and Resistance in Post-Colonial Literature Many problems surround the terms post-colonial and post-colonial literature.
In its most literal definition, post-colonial literature is simply a classification: a body of work or works produced by a previously colonized nation. The British succeeded in playing the Ndebele and neighboring Mashona against each other, and this, combined with the spread of smallpox, placed the Ndebele at a severe disadvantage.
Much to the detriment of African societies, the enmity between them often fostered alliances between Africans and Europeans against a common African enemy.
Unit 1: Pre-Columbian American Indians, European Explorations, and Colonization of North America Use the extra resources below to help you study/review the concepts discussed in this Unit.
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The first colony. England colonises Ireland. Indeed King Henry 2nd was asked by an Irish King (they had many at the time) to send an army to Ireland to sort out inter regional royal disputes.
|Western colonialism | Definition, History, Examples, & Effects | ashio-midori.com||Definition and Outline Colonialism is not a modern phenomenon. World history is full of examples of one society gradually expanding by incorporating adjacent territory and settling its people on newly conquered territory.|
|Colonialism and Imperialism, – — EGO||Maritime expansion, driven by commercial ambitions and by competition with Franceaccelerated in the 17th century and resulted in the establishment of settlements in North America and the West Indies. Slave trading had begun earlier in Sierra Leonebut that region did not become a British possession until|
|Academic Tools||A direct rule would be where one country, say England in the early 17th century, rules another country using its own laws and people.|
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