The bloated organs were several times normal weight, with barely any room for air. The island's veterinarians had never seen anything like it. Cats and dogs there were having trouble breathing, too. In cats, the disease could cause a particularly gruesome symptom:
From Report to Verdict Attrition Statistics and the Equivalent Crimes Fallacy Attrition in Rape Case Processing Focusing on Acquaintance Rape The Police Founding Decision The Decision to Prosecute Kalven and Zeisel's Classic Jury Study Other Research on Victims and Situational Variables Leniency in Acquaintance Rape Cases: The Argument from Rationality The Argument From Underreporting The Argument from Unfounding Rates The Burden of Proof Victim Behavior as Ambiprobative Evidence Delinquency and Delinquent Peers Mental Problems, Runaways, and Truants Prior Intimacy with the Defendant The most fundamental of these premises is that the justice system discriminates, at every stage, against rape victims.
To begin, the case attrition rate in rape cases is shockingly high, and very few rapists are convicted of the crime.
Since the s, most states have responded to this critique by enacting several reforms of their rape laws. In part, they were designed to alleviate victims' ordeals during rape investigations and trials.
Some scholars believe that the original rape law reforms were too modest. These scholars have proposed new reforms, a process that continues to this day.
Among these "second wave" reforms have been proposals to base rape liability on negligence or even strict liability; to redefine the crime as non-consensual sex, eliminating "force" from the definition; and to require that the woman's consent be affirmatively given in advance of the sexual act.
The purpose of this article is not to offer new ideas for improving rape law.
We believe reforms need to be grounded in accurate perceptions of social reality, including a realistic understanding of the reasons why criminals escape justice and an awareness of the limitations of legal doctrines as instruments for changing case outcomes.
Accordingly, our aim is to lay a foundation for discussion of reforms by reexamining the two central tenets of the rape law reform movement: In our judgment, a thorough analysis of these assumptions is a prerequisite to intelligent evaluation of new proposals for rape law reform.
Like most rape scholars, we will confine our discussion to forcible, heterosexual rapes.New Zealand.
and without actual data it is difficult to even comment on the strength of the relationship. though you will learn in a later chapter that it is very dangerous to assume such a relationship without performing a properly controlled statistical experiment.
Design An Experiment To Determine Whether A New Drug That Is Supposed To Reduce Hyperactivity In Children Actually Does Drugging Our Children Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by impulses that indicate disruptive behavior, and deficits in attention and motivation.
The identification of dark patches on the skin may be the first indication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM type 2). DM type 2 is a complex heterogeneous group of metabolic conditions characterised by elevated levels of serum glucose. As a result, one cannot determine whether any particular correlate of unfounding is indicative of police bias or, rather, of the fact that the group in question files rape reports that are less credible, on average, than reports by other women.
Subjectivity, so carefully excluded at the front door of the research design, enters triumphantly. Design an experiment to determine whether a new drug that is supposed to reduce hyperactivity in children actually does. Your essay should include & identification & description of all the components of your experimental design.
a. add a new condition to a previous experiment. b. examine other possible conceptual variables involved in the results of a previous experiment. c.
see if an effect that has been found in one laboratory or by one researcher can be found.