Some Christian theologians reason that Masturbation usually involves sexual fantasy According to Matthew 5: Adultery is a very serious sin.
Further information on ethical aspects of prophylactic surgery as a disease control strategy on low income countries NOTES 1. Because AIDS is not a really serious public health issue in the developed world, there is not much research on the difference in rates of HIV infection between circumcised and uncircumcised men in developed countries, but two significant studies in Britain and the USA both found a higher incidence of HIV among circumcised men: Circumcision in the United States: Prevalence, Prophylactic Effects, and Sexual Practice.
Journal of the American Medical Association ; The clinical trials are, in any case, a bit fishy for several reasons. For an analysis of why this is so, see John P. This fact seems to elude those naive but brutal researchers who think they have found a miracle solution to the AIDS crisis in penile surgery.
They might as well advocate the pre-emptive excision of a lung so as to reduce the danger of SARS, or cauterisation of the nasal and throat passages so as to block the many common infections which get in that way.
It seems to work only one way. According to many defenders of traditional tribal practices, who tend to be romantically anti-western and anti-modern in their tenderness for the exotic and the primitive, we are not allowed to discourage circumcising cultures from dropping the practice.
One would have thought that such a blatant example of medico-cultural imperialism, and from the USA at that, would have sent those who value the specificity of other cultures up in arms. The idea that pre-emptive surgery is the miracle-working answer to the AIDS crisis should be treated very sceptically.
The evidence for it is on a par with the abundant evidence in nineteenth century medical journals that masturbation caused tuberculosis, madness, pimples and premature decay et tutti quantiand the equally promoted delusion that circumcision provided immunity to syphilis.
Whenever an incurable illness turns up, desperate people try to find scapegoats: American medicine has a particularly fine record in this area.
In the Medical Record listed the following indications for male circumcision: Comment from an AIDS educator The danger of newspaper headlines about circumcision providing immunity to AIDS is that circumcised men start to think they are safe and stop using condoms.
The literature from which the report on circumcision and HIV transmission was based came from 27 studies in Africa. Science is not my field, but from what I remember, for a scientific study to support a hypothesis such as foreskins affect the rate of HIV transmission, then the study needs to be replicated elsewhere, or are African foreskins different than other foreskins?
Maybe the transmission has nothing to do with the foreskin, but that the HIV virus has a strong religious bias. You cannot transmit the virus, with or without a foreskin, unless you have the virus.
You can not get the virus, with or without a foreskin, unless you are involved in unsafe practices with someone who has the virus. How will information such as the one on foreskins and HIV be perceived by the general public?
I can see straight teenagers the group with the largest increase of HIV transmission now having sex without condoms because they are circumcised.
Education has been shown to be the best way to prevent HIV transmission. Full discussion available here: Quite apart from its irrelevance to the developed world, there are numerous problems with the reliability of the African data on which the circumcision proponents depend.
For a start, numerous observational and cohort studies have failed to find any correlation between circumcision and HIV.
In at least six African countries, HIV is more common among circumcised men than among the uncut — a puzzling fact that circumcision enthusiasts are anxious to ignore. A randomized trial is one in which the subjects who are given the treatment being tested and those who are not given it are chosen at random, thus minimizing the effect of selection bias.
In these trials the men treated with circumcision all volunteered for the operation, thus introducing an imponderable distorting factor.
The so called control group was merely a similar number of men who did not want to get circumcised. There were probably cultural and psychological differences between the two groups that affected their subsequent behaviour and thus the rate at which they got infected.
This violates the fundamental rule about controlled experiments: In the event, a total of 5, men were circumcised and a comparable number left intact. The trials were meant to last two years, but they were terminated after only twenty months, by which time 64 of the circumcised men had contracted HIV and of the not-circumcised.The latest breaking news video and visual storytelling from HuffPost.
The first six factors listed above have vanished or are diminishing in importance. Currently, most people have access to devices that exhibit a high efficiency at preventing pregnancy and the transmission of STD's.
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