By Saul McLeodupdated Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. Needs lower down in the hierarchy must be satisfied before individuals can attend to needs higher up. From the bottom of the hierarchy upwards, the needs are:
These needs are arranged in a hierarchy. Maslow suggests that we seek first to satisfy the lowest level of needs. Once this is done, we seek to satisfy each higher level of need until we have satisfied all five needs.
The Hierarchy of Needs is as follows: Physiological Needs basic issues of survival such as salary and stable employment 2. Security Needs stable physical and emotional environment issues such as benefits, pension, safe work environment, and fair work practices 3.
Esteem Needs positive self-image and respect and recognition issues such as job titles, nice work spaces, and prestigious job assignments. Generally, a person beginning their career will be very concerned with physiological needs such as adequate wages and stable income and security needs such as benefits and a safe work environment.
We all want a good salary to meet the needs of our family and we want to work in a stable environment. Employees whose lowest level needs have not been met will make job decisions based on compensation, safety, or stability concerns.
Also, employees will revert to satisfying their lowest level needs when these needs are no longer met or are threatened such as during an economic downturn. The first priority of workers is their survival.
Click To Tweet This places an extra obligation on managers to act humanely when difficult organizational decisions such as staff reductions have to be implemented. Callous implementation of difficult decisions will cause the remaining employees in the organization to feel threatened about the ability or desire of the organization to continue to meet their physiological and security needs.
Once these basic needs are met, the employee will want his "belongingness" or social needs met. The level of social interaction an employee desires will vary based on whether the employee is an introvert or extrovert.
The key point is that employees desire to work in an environment where they are accepted in the organization and have some interaction with others. This means effective interpersonal relations are necessary. Managers can create an environment where staff cooperation is rewarded.
This will encourage interpersonal effectiveness.
This last point is especially important for virtual employees whose absence from the office puts an extra obligation on managers to keep these employees engaged in organizational communications. Click To Tweet Higher Level Needs With these needs satisfied, an employee will want his higher level needs of esteem and self-actualization met.
Even if an individual does not want to move into management, he probably does not want to do the same exact work for 20 years. He may want to be on a project team, complete a special task, learn other tasks or duties, or expand his duties in some manner.
Cross-training, job enrichment, and special assignments are popular methods for making work more rewarding. Finally, symbols of accomplishment such as a meaningful job title, job perks, awards, a nice office, business cards, work space, etc. The important consideration for managers is that they must provide rewards to their employees that both come from the organization and from doing the work itself.
Rewards need to be balanced to have a maximum effect. For work rewards to be meaningful, they must come both from the organization and from the work itself.
Click To Tweet Finally, while work assignments and rewards are important considerations to meeting employee esteem needs, workplace fairness equity is also important. With self-actualization, the employee will be interested in growth and individual development.
He will also need to be skilled at what he does. He may want a challenging job, an opportunity to complete further education, increased freedom from supervision, or autonomy to define his own processes for meeting organizational objectives.
At this highest level, managers focus on promoting an environment where an employee can meet his own self-actualization needs. As one need is met, we desire other needs. Will the raise we received 3 years ago motivate us for the next 10 years?
Will the challenging job we began 5 years ago have the same effect on us today? Will the performance award we received last year completely satisfy our need for recognition for the rest of our lives?The “motivation to work” published by Maslow probably provided the field of organisational behaviour and management with a new way of looking at employees job altitudes or behaviours in understanding how humans are motivated.
Maslow described peak experience as a "tremendous intensification of any of the experiences in which there is loss of self or transcendence of [self]" (Maslow, , Motivation and Personality, p. ). It is a rapturous emotional experience and similar to what religious people might call an ecstatic "mystical experience" where the divisions.
The Maslow's theory of the hierarchy of needs seems to be a good model of human motivation, but has majors inconsistencies when observing the modern real life aspect of it.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review.
Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. Maslow proposed that motivation is the result of a person's attempt at fulfilling five basic needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization.
"Although Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has been criticized for being overly-schematic and lacking in scientific grounding, it presents an intuitive and potentially useful theory of human motivation.".