Lung cancer kills thousands of Americans every year. Smoking, radon, and secondhand smoke are the leading causes of lung cancer. Although lung cancer can be treated, the survival rate is one of the lowest for those with cancer.
Extrapolation down the noble gas group would suggest also the possible existence of RnO, RnO2, and RnOF4, as well as the first chemically stable noble gas chlorides RnCl2 and RnCl4, but none of these have yet been found.
Isotopes of radon The radium or uranium series. Radon has no stable isotopes. Thirty-seven radioactive isotopes have been characterized, with atomic masses ranging from to Three other radon isotopes have a half-life of over an hour: The Rn isotope is a natural decay product of the most stable thorium isotope Thand is commonly referred to as thoron.
It has a half-life of Similarly, Rn is derived from the most stable isotope of actinium Ac —named "actinon"—and is an alpha emitter with a half-life of 3. Its four first products excluding marginal decay schemes are very short-lived, meaning that the corresponding disintegrations are indicative of the initial radon distribution.
Its decay goes through the following sequence: The radon equilibrium factor  is the ratio between the activity of all short-period radon progenies which are responsible for most of radon's biological effectsand the activity that would be at equilibrium with the radon parent.
If a closed volume is constantly supplied with radon, the concentration of short-lived isotopes will increase until an equilibrium is reached where the rate of decay of each decay product will equal that of the radon itself.
The equilibrium factor is 1 when both activities are equal, meaning that the decay products have stayed close to the radon parent long enough for the equilibrium to be reached, within a couple of hours.
A detailed explanation of WL is given in Concentration Units. Because of their electrostatic charge, radon progenies adhere to surfaces or dust particles, whereas gaseous radon does not. Attachment removes them from the air, usually causing the equilibrium factor in the atmosphere to be less than one.
The equilibrium factor is also lowered by air circulation or air filtration devices, and is increased by airborne dust particles, including cigarette smoke. In high concentrations, airborne radon isotopes contribute significantly to human health risk.
The equilibrium factor found in epidemiological studies is 0. M is a capillary tube where approximately 0. Radon mixed with hydrogen entered the evacuated system through siphon A; mercury is shown in black.
Radon was the fifth radioactive element to be discovered, in by Ernest Rutherford and Robert B. Owens after uranium, thorium, radium and polonium. Owens and Ernest Rutherford, at McGill University in Montrealnoticed variations when trying to measure radiation from thorium oxide.
InRutherford and Harriet Brooks demonstrated that the emanations are radioactive, but credited the Curies for the discovery of the element.
Several shortened names were soon suggested for the three emanations: The likeness of the spectra of these three gases with those of argon, krypton, and xenon, and their observed chemical inertia led Sir William Ramsay to suggest in that the "emanations" might contain a new element of the noble gas family.
In they determined that it was the heaviest known gas. Later, when isotopes were numbered instead of named, the element took the name of the most stable isotope, radon, while Tn was renamed Rn and An was renamed Rn, which caused some confusion in the literature regarding the element's discovery as while Dorn had discovered radon the isotope, he had not been the first to discover radon the element.
As late as the s, the element was also referred to simply as emanation. InParacelsus described a wasting disease of miners, the mala metallorum, and Georg Agricola recommended ventilation in mines to avoid this mountain sickness Bergsucht.
The first major studies with radon and health occurred in the context of uranium mining in the Joachimsthal region of Bohemia. Beginning in the s research was initiated to address sources of indoor radon, determinants of concentration, health effects, and mitigation approaches.
In the United States, the problem of indoor radon received widespread publicity and intensified investigation after a widely publicized incident in During routine monitoring at a Pennsylvania nuclear power plant, a worker was found to be contaminated with radioactivity.
A high concentration of radon in his home was subsequently identified as responsible.Home; Radon Information. Radon Facts; Cancer and Radon; Granite and Radon; Radon FAQ; EPA Radon Publications; EPA Radon Slideshow; Other Radon Links; Radon Resources.
One of the most widely-used radon test kits in the world, renowned for its ease-of-use and accurate results. Over 4,, analyzed kits in the last 30 years has confirmed Air Chek as the leader in radon testing. The radioactive gas radon is a hazard in many homes and workplaces.
Breathing in radon is the second largest cause of lung cancer in the UK resulting in up to fatal cancers per year. The Safety Siren Pro Series 3 Electronic Radon Detector from Family Safety Products is the only radon gas detector on the market designed for use by the homeowner. Radon: Truths and myths.
Radon is a colorless, odorless gas that is present in all homes. Learn what levels are too high and how to avoid exposure to this cancer-causing element. Exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Radon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless and invisible gas produced by the decay of . The most popular radon test kits in the U.S. available at unbeatable prices! Made by the world’s largest producer of radon test kits. Rated #1 by a leading consumer product testing group.
Prelude. A large portion of the general population is under the misconception that the frequently published risks associated with radon are well accepted scientific facts. About Radon. Radon gas exposure takes more than , lives all over the world every year. It is a carcinogenic, radioactive gas and is the second most prevalent cause of lung cancer after tobacco use.