Topics include major events, persons, and issues spanning the period from the African heritage to contemporary times. Students survey the evolution of African American expressive culture in music, literature, film, art, and dance.
See Article History Automata theory, body of physical and logical principles underlying the operation of any electromechanical device an automaton that converts information from one form into another according to a definite procedure. Real or hypothetical automata of varying complexity have become indispensable tools for the investigation and implementation of systems that have structures amenable to mathematical analysis.
An example of a typical automaton is a pendulum clock. In such a mechanism the gears can assume only one of a finite number of positions, or states, with each swing of the pendulum. Each state, through the operation of the escapementdetermines the next succeeding state, as well as a discrete outputwhich is displayed as the discrete positions of the hands of the clock.
As long as such a clock is wound and its operation is not interfered with, it will continue to operate unaffected by outside influences except the effect of gravity on the pendulum.
More general automata are designed to respond to changes in external conditions or to other inputs. For example, thermostatsautomatic pilots of aircraft, missile guidance systems, telephone networks, and controls of certain kinds of automatic elevators are all forms of automata.
The internal states of such devices are not determined solely by their initial state, as is the case of the pendulum clock, but may be determined by an input from a human operatorfrom another automaton, or by an event or series of events in the environment.
The best known general automaton is the modern electronic computerthe internal states of which are determined by the data input and which operates to produce a certain output.
Nelson Nature and origin of modern automata The components of automata consist of specific materials and devices, such as wires, transistors, levers, relays, gears, and so forth, and their operation is based on the mechanics and electronics of these parts.
The principles of their operation as a sequence of discrete states can, however, be understood independently of the nature or arrangement of their components.
In this way, an automaton may be considered, abstractly, as a set of physically unspecified states, inputs, outputs, and rules of operation, and the study of automata as the investigation of what can be accomplished with these.
This mode of abstraction yields mathematical systems that in certain respects resemble logical systems. Thus, an automaton can be described as a logically defined entity that can be embodied in the form of a machine, with the term automaton designating both the physical and the logical constructions.
For the machine, time was considered to be discrete and its internal structure, at a given moment, was described simply as one of a finite set of states. It performed its functions by scanning an unbounded tape divided into squares, each of which either contained specific information in the form of one of a finite number of symbols or was blank.
The output number was then interpreted from the symbols remaining on the tape after the machine stopped. Automata theory since the middle of the 20th century has been extensively refined and has often found practical application in civilian and military machines.
The memory banks of modern computers can store large though finite amounts of information. For further information on computers and their applications, see information processing. The original Turing machine had no limit to the memory bank because each square on the unbounded tape could hold information.
Neural nets and automata The finite automata of McCulloch and Pitts Part of automata theory lying within the area of pure mathematical study is often based on a model of a portion of the nervous system in a living creature and on how that system with its complex of neuronsnerve endingsand synapses separating gap between neurons can generate, codify, store, and use information.
Any physical neuron can be sufficiently excited by an oncoming impulse to fire another impulse into the network of which it forms a part, or else the threshold will not be reached because the stimulus is absent or inadequate. In the latter case, the neuron fails to fire and remains quiescent.
When several neurons are connected together, an impulse travelling in a particular part of the network may have several effects.
Original work on this aspect of automata theory was done by Warren S. The definitions of various automata as used here are based on the work of two mathematicians, John von Neumann and Stephen Cole Kleeneand the earlier neurophysiological researches of McCulloch and Pitts, which offer a mathematical description of some essential features of a living organism.In the theory of computation, a branch of theoretical computer science, a pushdown automaton (PDA) is a type of automaton that employs a stack..
Pushdown automata are used in theories about what can be computed by machines. They are more capable than finite-state machines but less capable than Turing machines.
Deterministic pushdown automata .
The Neural Network Pushdown Automaton: Model, Stack and Learning Simulations UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND TR NOs. UMIACS-TR & CS-TR This paper discusses in detail a NNPDA - its construction, how it can be trained and how useful symbolic information can be ex- However, comparison of a neural network push-down automata .
CS Principles of Computer Science. 4 Hours. This is an introductory course for non-CS majors to learn the fundamental concepts and topics of Computer Science (CS), and how CS is now impacting and changing every person's way of life. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 1 ISSN ashio-midori.com Implementation of Query Processor Using Automata and Natural Language Processing Jasmeen Kaur *, Bhawna chauhan *, Jatinder Kaur Korepal ** * Computer Science & Engineering, ashio-midori.comuria Institute .
CARL (Cellular Automata Research Lab) founded by a renowned scientist and academician Prof. Parimal Pal Choudhuri focuses on commercializing Cellular Automata (CA) based technology, models and tools in different functional domains.
A CA is a dynamical system discrete in space and time with wide applications in diverse fields - . This course introduces students to the fundamentals of computer programming as students design, write, and debug computer programs using the programming language Python.
No knowledge of programming is assumed. Not open to graduate Computer Science, Information Systems, Mathematics or Scientific.