Risk management in the different phases of a construction project. Department of Architectural Engineering. Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of. Doctor of Philosophy PhD.
Background on legal education in common law countries[ edit ] To become a lawyer and practice law in most states and countries, a person must first obtain a law degree.
While in most common law countries a Bachelor of Laws or LL.
The degree is earned by completing law school in the United StatesCanadaAustraliaand other common law countries. Many who hold the degree of Juris Doctor are professionals committed to the practice of lawand may choose to focus their practice on criminal lawtortfamily lawcorporate lawor a wide range of other areas.
The majority of individuals holding a J. The word legum is the genitive plural form of the Latin word lex and means "of the laws". When used in the plural, it signifies a specific body of laws, as opposed to the general collective concept embodied in the word jus, from which the words "juris" and "justice" derive.
The highest research degree in law is the S. There are also variant doctoral degrees, such as the D. Most schools require an LL. Like the PhD, the SJD degree generally requires a dissertation that is graded often by two gradersorally defended by an exam sustainable design master thesis download as viva voce and then often published as a book or series of articles.
The "Doctor of Laws" LL. International situation[ edit ] Historically, the LL. Over the past years, however, specialized LL. Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Cyprus, Italy and Switzerland require a Master's with an additional two to five years to become a lawyer.
As ofSpain requires a master's degree in addition to a 4 years' degree to become a lawyer. In Finland, an LL. The Dutch Order of Lawyers NOVA require these courses for every potential candidate lawyer who wants to be conditionally written in the district court for three years.
Most universities offer only a small number of LL. One of the most popular LL. Some law schools allow LL. Eur Master of European Law. In the Netherlands and its former colonies, the title used was Meester in de Rechten Mr.
Moreover, some programs are conducted in more than one language, give the students the opportunity to undertake classes in differing languages. Requirements[ edit ] LL. There are exceptions to this but an undergraduate degree or extensive experience in a related field is still required.
Most programs require students to write a thesis. Some programs are research oriented with little classroom time similar to a M. Some associations provide LL. Australia[ edit ] In Australiathe LL.
However, some universities permit a non-law graduate to undertake variants of the degree. Unique variants of the LL.
Other variants of the LL. These courses are usually more specialised than a standard LL. Canada[ edit ] In Canada, the LL. Students can choose to take research based LL. Canadian law graduates pursue LL. Canadian law graduates in most of the provinces in Canada must complete an internship with a law firm known as "articling" and a professional legal training course, as well as pass professional exams in order to be called to the bar in a province.
Upon having received a certificate of accreditation from the National Committee on Accreditation, foreign law graduates would then have to obtain articles with a law firm, take the professional legal training course, and pass the professional exams to be called to the bar in a province.
China Mainland [ edit ] The LL. The course is flexible and allows students to study Mandarin and assists with organizing work experience in Beijing and other cities in China. It normally takes two years, but can be completed in one and a half years if students take the required credits in time.
The Master of European and International Law is taught in English, open for international students and can be studied as a single master programme. The course is taken over two years, with the first covering online lessons through video and assignments, the second year is for the dissertation and an online defense is required at the end.
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